# Binary PCK Hands-On Lesson¶

November 20, 2017

## Overview¶

In this lesson you will develop two programs that demonstrate geometric computations using “high-accuracy” Earth and Moon binary PCKs. The programs also demonstrate use of frame kernels and SPK files normally used together with these high-accuracy PCKs.

## Kernels Used¶

The following kernels are used in examples provided in this lesson:

```#  FILE NAME                      TYPE DESCRIPTION
-- ------------------------------ ---- ------------------------------
1  naif0008.tls                   LSK  Generic LSK
2  de414_2000_2020.bsp            SPK  Solar System Ephemeris
3  moon_060721.tf                 FK   Lunar FK
4  pck00008.tpc                   PCK  NAIF text PCK
5  moon_pa_de403_1950-2198.bpc    PCK  Moon binary PCK
6  earthstns_itrf93_050714.bsp    SPK  DSN station Ephemeris
7  earth_topo_050714.tf           FK   Earth topocentric FK
8  earth_000101_070725_070503.bpc PCK  Earth binary PCK
```

These SPICE kernels are included in the lesson package available from the NAIF server at JPL:

```ftp://naif.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/naif/toolkit_docs/Lessons/
```

## SpiceyPy Modules Used¶

This section provides a complete list of the functions and kernels that are suggested for usage in each of the exercises in this lesson. (You may wish to not look at this list unless/until you “get stuck” while working on your own.)

```CHAPTER EXERCISE   FUNCTIONS        NON-VOID         KERNELS
------- ---------  ---------------  ---------------  ----------
1    mrotat     spiceypy.furnsh  spiceypy.str2et  1-5
spiceypy.reclat
spiceypy.dpr
spiceypy.vsep
spiceypy.subpnt
spiceypy.vdist

2    erotat     spiceypy.furnsh  spiceypy.str2et  1-2,4,6-8
spiceypy.reclat
spiceypy.dpr
spiceypy.vsep
spiceypy.spd
spiceypy.timout
spiceypy.pxform
spiceypy.twopi
spiceypy.subslr
spiceypy.vdist
```

Use the Python built-in help system on the various functions listed above for the API parameters’ description, and refer to the headers of their corresponding CSPICE versions for detailed interface specifications.

## Moon rotation (mrotat)¶

Write a program that performs the following computations:

```1.   Convert the time string 2007 JAN 1 00:00:00 UTC to a double
precision number representing seconds past J2000 TDB.

In the following instructions, we'll call the result of this
computation ET.

2.   Compute the apparent position of the Earth as seen from the
Moon in the IAU_MOON reference frame at the epoch ET. Use light
time and stellar aberration corrections. Use spiceypy.reclat to
compute the planetocentric longitude and latitude of the Earth
position vector; display these coordinates in degrees.

3.   Repeat the computation of step 2 using the MOON_ME reference
frame. Display the results as above.

4.   Compute the angular separation of the position vectors found in
steps 2 and 3. Display the result in degrees.

5.   Repeat the computation of step 2 using the MOON_PA reference
frame. Display the results as above.

6.   Compute the angular separation of the position vectors found in
steps 3 and 5 (these vectors are expressed in the MOON_ME and
MOON_PA frames). Display the result in degrees.

7.   Compute the apparent sub-Earth point on the Moon at ET,
expressed in the MOON_ME reference frame and using light time
and stellar aberration corrections. Convert the sub-Earth point
to latitudinal coordinates using spiceypy.reclat. Display the
longitude and latitude of the sub-Earth point in degrees.

8.   Repeat step 7, now using the MOON_PA frame.

9.   Compute the distance between the two sub-Earth points found
above in steps 7 and 8. Display the result in kilometers.
```

### Learning Goals¶

Familiarity with SPICE kernels required to obtain high-accuracy orientation of the Moon. Understanding the differences between results obtained using low and high-accuracy Moon orientation data. Understanding the difference between the MOON_ME and MOON_PA frames.

### Approach¶

The following “tips” may simplify the solution process.

```--   Examine the SPICE kernels provided with this lesson. Use BRIEF
to find coverage periods of SPK kernels and binary PCKs. Use
COMMNT to view the comment areas of binary PCKs. Examine text
kernels, in particular text kernel comments, using a text
editor or browser.

--   Decide which SPICE kernels are necessary. Prepare a meta-kernel
listing the kernels and load it into the program.

--   Consult the above list titled "SpiceyPy Modules Used" to see
which routines are needed.

--   The computational steps listed above should be followed in the
order shown.
```

You may find it useful to consult the permuted index, the headers of various source modules, and the tutorials titled “PCK” and” High Accuracy Orientation and Body-Fixed frames for Moon and Earth.”

### Solution¶

Solution Meta-Kernel

The meta-kernel we created for the solution to this exercise is named ‘mrotat.tm’. Its contents follow:

```KPL/MK

Meta-kernel for the "Moon Rotation" task in the Binary PCK
Hands On Lesson.

The names and contents of the kernels referenced by this
meta-kernel are as follows:

File name                    Contents
---------------------------  ------------------------------------
naif0008.tls                 Generic LSK
de414_2000_2020.bsp          Solar System Ephemeris
moon_060721.tf               Lunar FK
pck00008.tpc                 NAIF text PCK
moon_pa_de403_1950-2198.bpc  Moon binary PCK

\begindata

'kernels/spk/de414_2000_2020.bsp'
'kernels/fk/moon_060721.tf'
'kernels/pck/pck00008.tpc'
'kernels/pck/moon_pa_de403_1950-2198.bpc' )
\begintext
```

Solution Source Code

A sample solution to the problem follows:

```#
# Solution mrotat
#
from __future__ import print_function
#
# SpiceyPy package:
#
import spiceypy

def mrotat():
#
# Local parameters
#
METAKR = 'mrotat.tm'

#
# Load the kernels that this program requires.
#
spiceypy.furnsh( METAKR )

#
# Convert our UTC string to seconds past J2000 TDB.
#
timstr = '2007 JAN 1 00:00:00'
et     = spiceypy.str2et( timstr )

#
# Look up the apparent position of the Earth relative
# to the Moon's center in the IAU_MOON frame at ET.
#
[imoonv, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos(
'earth', et, 'iau_moon', 'lt+s', 'moon' )

#
#Express the Earth direction in terms of longitude
#and latitude in the IAU_MOON frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( imoonv )

print( '\n'
'Moon-Earth direction using low accuracy\n'
'PCK and IAU_MOON frame:\n'
'Earth lon (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Earth lat (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Look up the apparent position of the Earth relative
# to the Moon's center in the MOON_ME frame at ET.
#
[mmoonv, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos( 'earth', et, 'moon_me',
'lt+s', 'moon'        )
#
# Express the Earth direction in terms of longitude
# and latitude in the MOON_ME frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( mmoonv )

print( 'Moon-Earth direction using high accuracy\n'
'PCK and MOON_ME frame:\n'
'Earth lon (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Earth lat (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Find the angular separation of the Earth position
# vectors in degrees.
#
sep = spiceypy.dpr() * spiceypy.vsep( imoonv, mmoonv )

print( 'For IAU_MOON vs MOON_ME frames:' )
print( 'Moon-Earth vector separation angle (deg):     '
'{:15.6f}\n'.format( sep )  )
#
# Look up the apparent position of the Earth relative
# to the Moon's center in the MOON_PA frame at ET.
#
[pmoonv, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos( 'earth', et, 'moon_pa',
'lt+s',  'moon'        )
#
# Express the Earth direction in terms of longitude
# and latitude in the MOON_PA frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( pmoonv )

print( 'Moon-Earth direction using high accuracy\n'
'PCK and MOON_PA frame:\n'
'Earth lon (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Earth lat (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Find the angular separation of the Earth position
# vectors in degrees.
#
sep = spiceypy.dpr() * spiceypy.vsep( pmoonv, mmoonv )

print( 'For MOON_PA vs MOON_ME frames:' )
print( 'Moon-Earth vector separation angle (deg):     '
'{:15.6f}\n'.format( sep )  )
#
# Find the apparent sub-Earth point on the Moon at ET
# using the MOON_ME frame.
#
[msub, trgepc, srfvec ] = spiceypy.subpnt(
'near point: ellipsoid', 'moon',
et,  'moon_me', 'lt+s',  'earth' )
#
# Display the sub-point in latitudinal coordinates.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( msub )

print( 'Sub-Earth point on Moon using high accuracy\n'
'PCK and MOON_ME frame:\n'
'Sub-Earth lon (deg):   {0:15.6f}\n'
'Sub-Earth lat (deg):   {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr()  )  )
#
# Find the apparent sub-Earth point on the Moon at
# ET using the MOON_PA frame.
#
[psub, trgepc, srfvec] = spiceypy.subpnt(
'near point: ellipsoid',  'moon',
et,   'moon_pa', 'lt+s', 'earth'    )
#
# Display the sub-point in latitudinal coordinates.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( psub )

print( 'Sub-Earth point on Moon using high accuracy\n'
'PCK and MOON_PA frame:\n'
'Sub-Earth lon (deg):   {0:15.6f}\n'
'Sub-Earth lat (deg):   {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Find the distance between the sub-Earth points
# in km.
#
dist = spiceypy.vdist( msub, psub )

print( 'Distance between sub-Earth points (km): '
'{:15.6f}\n'.format( dist )  )

if __name__ == '__main__':
mrotat()
```

Solution Sample Output

Execute the program:

```Moon-Earth direction using low accuracy
PCK and IAU_MOON frame:
Earth lon (deg):               3.613102
Earth lat (deg):              -6.438342

Moon-Earth direction using high accuracy
PCK and MOON_ME frame:
Earth lon (deg):               3.611229
Earth lat (deg):              -6.439501

For IAU_MOON vs MOON_ME frames:
Moon-Earth vector separation angle (deg):            0.002194

Moon-Earth direction using high accuracy
PCK and MOON_PA frame:
Earth lon (deg):               3.593319
Earth lat (deg):              -6.417582

For MOON_PA vs MOON_ME frames:
Moon-Earth vector separation angle (deg):            0.028235

Sub-Earth point on Moon using high accuracy
PCK and MOON_ME frame:
Sub-Earth lon (deg):          3.611419
Sub-Earth lat (deg):         -6.439501

Sub-Earth point on Moon using high accuracy
PCK and MOON_PA frame:
Sub-Earth lon (deg):          3.593509
Sub-Earth lat (deg):         -6.417582

Distance between sub-Earth points (km):        0.856182
```

## Earth rotation (erotat)¶

Write a program that performs the following computations:

```1.   Convert the time string 2007 JAN 1 00:00:00 UTC to a double
precision number representing seconds past J2000 TDB.

In the following instructions, we'll call the result of this
computation ET.

2.   Compute the apparent position of the Moon as seen from the
Earth in the IAU_EARTH reference frame at the epoch ET. Use
light time and stellar aberration corrections. Display the
planetocentric longitude and latitude of the Moon position
vector in degrees.

3.   Repeat the first computation using the ITRF93 reference frame.
Display the results as above.

4.   Compute the angular separation of the position vectors found
the the previous two steps. Display the result in degrees.
```

The following computations (steps 5-10) examine the cause of the angular offset found above, which is attributable to the rotation between the ITRF93 and IAU_EARTH frames. Steps 11 and up don’t rely on the results of steps 5-10, so steps 5-10 may be safely skipped if they’re not of interest to you.

For each of the two epochs ET and ET + 100 days, examine the differences between the axes of the ITRF93 and IAU_EARTH frames using the following method:

``` 5.   Convert the epoch of interest to a string in the format style
"2007-MAY-16 02:29:00.000 (UTC)." Display this string.

6.   Look up the 3x3 position transformation matrix that converts
vectors from the IAU_EARTH to the ITRF93 frame at the epoch of
interest. We'll call the returned matrix RMAT.

7.   Extract the first row of RMAT into a 3-vector, which we'll call
ITRFX. This is the X-axis of the ITRF93 frame expressed
relative to the IAU_EARTH frame.

8.   Extract the third row of RMAT into a 3-vector, which we'll call
ITRFZ. This is the Z-axis of the ITRF93 frame expressed
relative to the IAU_EARTH frame.

9.   Compute the angular separation between the vector ITRFX and the
X-axis (1, 0, 0) of the IAU_EARTH frame. Display the result in
degrees.

10.   Compute the angular separation between the vector ITRFZ and the
Z-axis (0, 0, 1) of the IAU_EARTH frame. Display the result in
degrees.
```

This is the end of the computations to be performed for the epochs ET and ET + 100 days. The following steps are part of a new computation.

Find the azimuth and elevation of the apparent position of the Moon as seen from the DSN station DSS-13 by the following steps:

```11.   Find the apparent position vector of the Moon relative to the
DSN station DSS-13 in the topocentric reference frame
DSS-13_TOPO at epoch ET. Use light time and stellar aberration
corrections.

For this step, you'll need to have loaded a station SPK file
providing geocentric station position vectors, as well as a
frame kernel specifying topocentric reference frames centered
at the respective DSN stations. (Other kernels will be needed
as well; you must choose these.)

12.   Convert the position vector to latitudinal coordinates. Use the
routine spiceypy.reclat for this computation.

13.   Compute the Moon's azimuth and elevation as follows: azimuth is
the negative of topocentric longitude and lies within the range
0-360 degrees; elevation is equal to the topocentric latitude.
Display the results in degrees.
```

The next computations demonstrate “high-accuracy” geometric computations using the Earth as the target body. These computations are not realistic; they are simply meant to demonstrate SPICE system features used for geometry computations involving the Earth as a target body. For example, the same basic techniques would be used to find the sub-solar point on the Earth as seen from an Earth-orbiting spacecraft.

```14.   Compute the apparent sub-solar point on the Earth at ET,
expressed relative to the IAU_EARTH reference frame, using
light time and stellar aberration corrections and using the Sun
as the observer. Convert the sub-solar point to latitudinal
coordinates using spiceypy.reclat. Display the longitude and
latitude of the sub-solar point in degrees.

15.   Repeat the sub-solar point computation described above, using
the ITRF93 Earth body-fixed reference frame. Display the
results as above.

16.   Compute the distance between the two sub-solar points found
above. Display the result in kilometers.
```

### Learning Goals¶

Familiarity with SPICE kernels required to obtain high-accuracy orientation of the Earth. Understanding the differences between results obtained using low and high-accuracy Earth orientation data.

Understanding of topocentric frames and computation of target geometry relative to a surface location on the Earth. Knowledge of SPICE kernels required to support such computations.

### Approach¶

The following “tips” may simplify the solution process.

```--   Examine the SPICE kernels provided with this lesson. Use BRIEF
to find coverage periods of SPK kernels and binary PCKs. Use
COMMNT to view the comment areas of binary PCKs. Examine text
kernels, in particular text kernel comments, using a text
editor or browser.

--   Decide which SPICE kernels are necessary. Prepare a meta-kernel
listing the kernels and load it into the program.

--   Consult the above list titled "SpiceyPy Modules Used" to see
which routines are needed. Note the functions used to provide
the values "seconds per day," "degrees per radian," and "2
times Pi."

--   Examine the header of the function spiceypy.reclat. Note that
this function may be used for coordinate conversions in
situations where the input rectangular coordinates refer to any
reference frame, not only a body-centered, body-fixed frame
whose X-Y plane coincides with the body's equator.

--   The computational steps listed above should be followed in the
order shown, but steps 5-10 may be omitted.
```

You may find it useful to consult the permuted index, the headers of various source modules, and the tutorials titled “PCK” and” High Accuracy Orientation and Body-Fixed frames for Moon and Earth.”

### Solution¶

Solution Meta-Kernel

The meta-kernel we created for the solution to this exercise is named ‘erotat.tm’. Its contents follow:

```KPL/MK

Meta-kernel for the "Earth Rotation" task
in the Binary PCK Hands On Lesson.

The names and contents of the kernels referenced by this
meta-kernel are as follows:

File name                       Contents
------------------------------  ---------------------------------
naif0008.tls                    Generic LSK
de414_2000_2020.bsp             Solar System Ephemeris
earthstns_itrf93_050714.bsp     DSN station Ephemeris
earth_topo_050714.tf            Earth topocentric FK
pck00008.tpc                    NAIF text PCK
earth_000101_070725_070503.bpc  Earth binary PCK

\begindata

'kernels/spk/de414_2000_2020.bsp'
'kernels/spk/earthstns_itrf93_050714.bsp'
'kernels/fk/earth_topo_050714.tf'
'kernels/pck/pck00008.tpc'
'kernels/pck/earth_000101_070725_070503.bpc' )

\begintext
```

Solution Source Code

A sample solution to the problem follows:

```#
# Solution mrotat
#
from __future__ import print_function
#
# SpiceyPy package:
#
import spiceypy

def erotat():
#
# Local parameters
#
METAKR = 'erotat.tm'

x = [ 1.0, 0.0, 0.0 ]
z = [ 0.0, 0.0, 1.0 ]

#
# Load the kernels that this program requires.
#
spiceypy.furnsh( METAKR )

#
# Convert our UTC string to seconds past J2000 TDB.
#
timstr = '2007 JAN 1 00:00:00'
et     = spiceypy.str2et( timstr )

#
# Look up the apparent position of the Moon relative
# to the Earth's center in the IAU_EARTH frame at ET.
#
[lmoonv, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos( 'moon', et, 'iau_earth',
'lt+s', 'earth'        )
#
# Express the Moon direction in terms of longitude
# and latitude in the IAU_EARTH frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( lmoonv )

print( 'Earth-Moon direction using low accuracy\n'
'PCK and IAU_EARTH frame:\n'
'Moon lon (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Moon lat (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Look up the apparent position of the Moon relative
# to the Earth's center in the ITRF93 frame at ET.
#
[hmoonv, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos( 'moon', et, 'ITRF93',
'lt+s', 'earth'      )
#
# Express the Moon direction in terms of longitude
# and latitude in the ITRF93 frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( hmoonv )

print( 'Earth-Moon direction using high accuracy\n'
'PCK and ITRF93 frame:\n'
'Moon lon (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Moon lat (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )
#
# Find the angular separation of the Moon position
# vectors in degrees.
#
sep = spiceypy.dpr() * spiceypy.vsep( lmoonv, hmoonv )

print( 'Earth-Moon vector separation angle (deg):     '
'{:15.6f}\n'.format( sep )  )

#
# Next, express the +Z and +X axes of the ITRF93 frame in
# the IAU_EARTH frame. We'll do this for two times: et
# and et + 100 days.
#
for  i  in range(2):
#
# Set the time, expressing the time delta in
# seconds.
#
t = et + i*spiceypy.spd()*100

#
# Convert the TDB time T to a string for output.
#
outstr = spiceypy.timout(
t, 'YYYY-MON-DD HR:MN:SC.### (UTC)' )

print( 'Epoch: {:s}'.format( outstr ) )

#
# Find the rotation matrix for conversion of
# position vectors from the IAU_EARTH to the
# ITRF93 frame.
#
rmat  = spiceypy.pxform( 'iau_earth', 'itrf93', t )
itrfx = rmat
itrfz = rmat

#
# Display the angular offsets of the ITRF93
# +X and +Z axes from their IAU_EARTH counterparts.
#
sep = spiceypy.vsep( itrfx, x )

print( 'ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +X axis separation '
'angle (deg): {:13.6f}'.format(
sep * spiceypy.dpr() )  )

sep = spiceypy.vsep( itrfz, z )

print( 'ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +Z axis separation '
'angle (deg): {:13.6f}\n'.format(
sep * spiceypy.dpr() )  )

#
# Find the azimuth and elevation of apparent
# position of the Moon in the local topocentric
# reference frame at the DSN station DSS-13.
# First look up the Moon's position relative to the
# station in that frame.
#
[topov, ltime] = spiceypy.spkpos( 'moon', et, 'DSS-13_TOPO',
'lt+s', 'DSS-13'         )

#
# Express the station-moon direction in terms of longitude
# and latitude in the DSS-13_TOPO frame.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( topov )

#
# Convert to azimuth-elevation.
#
az = -lon

if  az < 0.0:
az += spiceypy.twopi()

el = lat

print( 'DSS-13-Moon az/el using high accuracy '
'PCK and DSS-13_TOPO frame:\n'
'Moon Az (deg):        {0:15.6f}\n'
'Moon El (deg):        {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
az * spiceypy.dpr(),
el * spiceypy.dpr() )  )

#
# Find the sub-solar point on the Earth at ET using the
# Earth body-fixed frame IAU_EARTH. Treat the Sun as
# the observer.
#
[lsub, trgepc, srfvec] = spiceypy.subslr(
'near point: ellipsoid', 'earth', et,
'IAU_EARTH',             'lt+s',  'sun' );

#
# Display the sub-point in latitudinal coordinates.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( lsub )

print( 'Sub-Solar point on Earth using low accuracy\n'
'PCK and IAU_EARTH frame:\n'
'Sub-Solar lon (deg):   {0:15.6f}\n'
'Sub-Solar lat (deg):   {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )

#
# Find the sub-solar point on the Earth at ET using the
# Earth body-fixed frame ITRF93. Treat the Sun as
# the observer.
#
[hsub, trgepc, srfvec] = spiceypy.subslr(
'near point: ellipsoid', 'earth', et,
'ITRF93',                'lt+s',  'sun' );

#
# Display the sub-point in latitudinal coordinates.
#
[r, lon, lat] = spiceypy.reclat( hsub )

print( 'Sub-Solar point on Earth using '
'high accuracy \nPCK and ITRF93 frame:\n'
'Sub-Solar lon (deg):   {0:15.6f}\n'
'Sub-Solar lat (deg):   {1:15.6f}\n'.format(
lon * spiceypy.dpr(),
lat * spiceypy.dpr() )  )

#
# Find the distance between the sub-solar point
# vectors in km.
#
dist = spiceypy.vdist( lsub, hsub )

print( 'Distance between sub-solar points (km): '
'{:15.6f}'.format( dist )  )

if __name__ == '__main__':
erotat()
```

Solution Sample Output

Execute the program:

```Earth-Moon direction using low accuracy
PCK and IAU_EARTH frame:
Moon lon (deg):             -35.496272
Moon lat (deg):              26.416959

Earth-Moon direction using high accuracy
PCK and ITRF93 frame:
Moon lon (deg):             -35.554286
Moon lat (deg):              26.419156

Earth-Moon vector separation angle (deg):            0.052002

Epoch: 2007-JAN-01 00:00:00.000 (UTC)
ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +X axis separation angle (deg):      0.057677
ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +Z axis separation angle (deg):      0.002326

Epoch: 2007-APR-10 23:59:59.998 (UTC)
ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +X axis separation angle (deg):      0.057787
ITRF93 - IAU_EARTH +Z axis separation angle (deg):      0.002458

DSS-13-Moon az/el using high accuracy PCK and DSS-13_TOPO frame:
Moon Az (deg):              72.169006
Moon El (deg):              20.689488

Sub-Solar point on Earth using low accuracy
PCK and IAU_EARTH frame:
Sub-Solar lon (deg):       -177.100531
Sub-Solar lat (deg):        -22.910377

Sub-Solar point on Earth using high accuracy
PCK and ITRF93 frame:
Sub-Solar lon (deg):       -177.157874
Sub-Solar lat (deg):        -22.912593

Distance between sub-solar points (km):        5.881861
```